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Table 2 Performance of the DCNN models on the internal validation and external testing datasets

From: Automated detection of myopic maculopathy from color fundus photographs using deep convolutional neural networks

Model Accuracy (%) κ Sensitivity (%, 95% CI) Specificity (%, 95% CI) AUC (95% CI)
PM TF PM TF PM TF
Internal validation
 Qingdao Eye Hospital North Branch of Shandong First Medical University (Camera: Canon, Syseye)
  DCNN-DS 96.5 0.922 96.6 (94.1–98.1) 94.7 (91.8–96.6) 99.3 (98.8–99.6) 97.0 (96.2–97.6) 0.998 (0.996–0.999) 0.989 (0.984–0.992)
  DCNN-P 93.1 0.862 93.2 (90.1–95.5) 93.1 (90.0–95.3) 98.8 (98.2–99.1) 94.1 (93.1–95.0) 0.995 (0.992–0.997) 0.978 (0.972–0.983)
  DCNN-O 90.5 0.800 88.8 (85.1–91.7) 91.9 (88.6–94.3) 97.9 (97.2–98.4) 91.8 (90.6–92.9) 0.991 (0.987–0.994) 0.968 (0.961–0.974)
 Rongcheng Eye Hospital (Camera: Zeiss)
  DCNN-DS 96.8 0.928 97.8 (95.6–99.0) 91.4 (87.6–94.1) 99.0 (98.4–99.3) 97.7 (97.0–98.3) 0.998 (0.995–0.999) 0.983 (0.977–0.987)
  DCNN-P 93.2 0.853 93.3 (90.1–95.5) 90.7 (86.9–93.6) 98.7 (98.0–99.1) 94.1 (93.0–95.0) 0.997 (0.994–0.999) 0.972 (0.965–0.978)
  DCNN-O 90.3 0.796 90.8 (87.3–93.5) 89.2 (85.2–92.3) 97.6 (96.8–98.2) 92.2 (91.0–93.3) 0.992 (0.988–0.995) 0.962 (0.954–0.969)
 Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Qingdao) (Camera: Canon)
  DCNN-DS 95.6 0.903 93.8 (88.2–96.9) 92.6 (86.8–96.0) 99.3 (98.5–99.7) 96.4 (94.9–97.5) 0.997 (0.991–0.999) 0.984 (0.974–0.990)
  DCNN-P 93.6 0.862 92.4 (86.5–96.0) 92.6 (86.8–96.0) 99.0 (98.0–99.5) 94.2 (92.4–95.6) 0.995 (0.989–0.998) 0.982 (0.972–0.988)
  DCNN-O 90.4 0.798 83.4 (76.2–88.9) 93.2 (87.6–96.5) 98.3 (97.2–99.0) 91.4 (89.3–93.1) 0.989 (0.981–0.994) 0.966 (0.953–0.975)
 No. 971 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army (Camera: Topcon)
  DCNN-DS 96.9 0.928 94.3 (88.1–97.5) 97.5 (92.4–99.4) 99.3 (98.3–99.7) 97.3 (95.9–98.3) 0.989 (0.980–0.994) 0.981 (0.970–0.988)
  DCNN-P 91.6 0.811 90.2 (83.1–94.6) 89.3 (82.1–94.0) 98.5 (97.4–99.2) 92.6 (90.5–94.3) 0.991 (0.983–0.995) 0.962 (0.948–0.972)
  DCNN-O 91.0 0.802 88.5 (81.2–93.4) 91.8 (85.1–95.8) 97.9 (96.7–98.8) 92.0 (89.9–93.7) 0.988 (0.979–0.993) 0.968 (0.955–0.977)
 Overall
  DCNN-DS 96.5 0.922 96.4 (95.0–97.4) 93.6 (91.9–95.0) 99.2 (98.9–99.4) 97.2 (96.8–97.6) 0.997 (0.995–0.998) 0.985 (0.982–0.988)
  DCNN-P 93.0 0.849 92.8 (91.0–94.2) 91.8 (89.9–93.4) 98.7 (98.4–99.0) 93.9 (93.3–94.5) 0.996 (0.994–0.997) 0.975 (0.971–0.978)
  DCNN-O 90.5 0.799 88.8 (86.6–90.6) 91.2 (89.2–92.8) 97.8 (97.5–98.2) 91.9 (91.2–92.6) 0.991 (0.989–0.993) 0.966 (0.962–0.970)
External testing
 Shandong Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University (Camera: Topcon)
  DCNN-DS 96.3 0.922 93.3 (90.6–95.2) 98.8 (98.1–99.2) 99.6 (99.5–99.8) 95.6 (95.0–96.1) 0.998 (0.997–0.999) 0.986 (0.983–0.988)
  DCNN-P 93.9 0.872 88.1 (84.9–90.8) 92.5 (91.1–93.7) 98.7 (98.4–98.9) 94.5 (93.8–95.1) 0.995 (0.993–0.996) 0.972 (0.968–0.976)
  DCNN-O 92.5 0.844 88.7 (85.6–91.3) 94.7 (93.5–95.7) 98.9 (98.7–99.2) 91.9 (91.1–92.6) 0.996 (0.994–0.997) 0.970 (0.966–0.974)
 Qingdao Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University (Camera: Kowa)
  DCNN-DS 93.0 0.797 91.0 (88.5–93.0) 92.8 (90.6–94.5) 98.7 (98.4–98.9) 94.1 (93.5–94.6) 0.994 (0.992–0.995) 0.970 (0.966–0.974)
  DCNN-P 92.3 0.772 79.8 (76.5–82.8) 87.1 (84.5–89.4) 98.5 (98.1–98.7) 93.8 (93.2–94.4) 0.990 (0.988–0.992) 0.967 (0.963–0.971)
  DCNN-O 90.6 0.731 74.5 (70.9–77.7) 89.0 (86.5–91.1) 98.2 (97.9–98.5) 91.7 (91.1–92.4) 0.987 (0.984–0.989) 0.960 (0.955–0.964)
  1. AUC = area under the curve; CI = confidence interval; PM = pathologic myopia; TF = tessellated fundus