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Table 1 Control and diabetic retinopathy population and ocular characteristics

From: Visual acuity is correlated with ischemia and neurodegeneration in patients with early stages of diabetic retinopathy

  Control DR DR with normal BCVA (G1) DR with decreased BCVA (G2) P value
All groups Control vs. DR G1 vs. G2
Population characteristics (n = 89)
 No. of participants, n 33 89 53 36 NA NA NA
 Age (years) 56.94 ± 7.32 54.66 ± 10.95 50.72 ± 9.43 60.47 ± 10.55  < 0.001a 0.960a  < 0.001a
 Sex (M/F) 12/21 54/35 36/17 18/18 0.014b 0.017b 0.089b
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.57 ± 2.49 25.40 ± 3.67 25.56 ± 3.35 25.16 ± 4.15 0.433a 0.452a 0.598a
 MAP (mmHg) 92.42 ± 10.61 96.41 ± 22.61 96.78 ± 24.11 95.82 ± 20.29 0.079c 0.372c 1.000c
 DM duration (years) NA 9.06 ± 6.34 7.62 ± 5.27 11.19 ± 7.21 NA NA 0.021c
 BG (mmol/L) NA 7.78 ± 2.64 7.42 ± 2.46 8.35 ± 2.83 NA NA 0.067a
Ocular characteristics (n = 132)
 No. of eyes, n 33 132 88 44 NA NA NA
 BCVA (logMAR)  − 0.05 ± 0.05 0.01 ± 0.12  − 0.05 ± 0.06 0.12 ± 0.14  < 0.001c 0.008c  < 0.001c
 SE (D) 0.16 ± 1.16  − 0.10 ± 1.39  − 0.13 ± 1.42 0.21 ± 1.27 0.009c 0.071c 0.038c
 IOP (mmHg) 12.53 ± 2.42 14.41 ± 3.48 14.20 ± 3.53 14.83 ± 3.37 0.012a 0.005a 0.306a
DR severity
  ETDRS 20 (n = 56) NA 56 39 17 NA NA 0.534b
  ETDRS 35 (n = 52) NA 52 33 19 NA NA 0.529b
  ETDRS 43–53 (n = 24) NA 24 16 8 NA NA 1.000b
  1. BCVA best-corrected visual acuity; NA not applicable; M/F male/female; BMI body mass index; MAP mean arterial pressure; DM diabetes mellitus; BG blood glucose; logMAR logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; IOP intraocular pressure; DR diabetic retinopathy; ETDRS Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy
  2. at-test or ANOVA
  3. bχ2 test
  4. cKruskal-Wallis test