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Table 1 Summary characteristics of eyes in the Down syndrome (DS) keratoconus (DS-KC), DS KC suspect (DS-KCS), DS non-ectatic comparison (DS-C), and non-DS normal control (NC) groups

From: Tomography-based definition of keratoconus for Down syndrome patients

Index DS-KC
(n = 25)
DS-KCS
(n = 46)
DS-C
(n = 154)
NC
(n = 200)
P value*
UDVA (logMAR) 0.73 ± 0.57 0.58 ± 0.49 0.55 ± 0.44 0.91 ± 0.64 0.358
CDVA (logMAR) 0.29 ± 0.14 0.24 ± 0.13 0.23 ± 0.13 0.02 ± 0.08 0.279
Spherical error (D) −1.51 ± 4.91 −0.40 ± 4.31 −0.21 ± 3.13 − 3.31 ± 3.38 0.428
Cylindrical error (D) −2.54 ± 2.40 − 1.92 ± 1.21 −1.50 ± 1.06 −1.88 ± 1.53 0.009
Kmax (D) 50.26 ± 5.88 47.47 ± 1.65 47.09 ± 1.70 44.93 ± 1.55 < 0.001
BAD-D 2.98 ± 1.44 2.26 ± 0.66 1.72 ± 1.02 1.20 ± 0.53 < 0.001
  1. UDVA = uncorrected distance visual acuity; CDVA = corrected distance visual acuity; Kmax = maximum keratometry at 8-mm zone; BAD-D = Belin Ambrosio display-total deviation
  2. *One-way ANOVA between the three DS groups