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Table 2 Comparisons of visual characteristics in studied groups (M ± SD)

From: Fundamentals of Presbyopia: visual processing and binocularity in its transformation

Characteristics Control Presbyopia P-value
UDVA, logMAR −0.071 ± 0.045 −0.003 ± 0.026 0.0001
UNVA, logMAR 0.033 ± 0.043 0.575 ± 0.215 0.0001
CSS, frequency 3 cpd, units 7.41 ± 0.49 5.66 ± 0.54 0.0001
CSS, frequency 6 cpd, units 7.54 ± 0.45 6.95 ± 0.50 0.01
CSS, frequency 12 cpd, units 7.41 ± 0.45 6.83 ± 0.37 0.01
CSS, frequency 18 cpd, units 7.41 ± 0.45 6.02 ± 0.55 0.0001
Threshold of retina sensitivity, dB 27.9 ± 1.1 24.6 ± 3.5 0.01
Implicit time VEP on flash, msec 32.1 ± 14.5 29.1 ± 10.5 0.19
Amplitude VEP on flash, μV 99.7 ± 6.4 100.6 ± 8.2 0.17
Implicit time a-wave max ERG, msec 15.7 ± 7.5 21.3 ± 11.0 0.001
Amplitude a-wave max ERG, μV 149.7 ± 36.0 139.8 ± 42.7 0.17
Implicit time b-wave max ERG, msec 36.2 ± 3.2 45.9 ± 6.6 0.0001
Amplitude b-wave max ERG, μV 311.8 ± 57.7 287.0 ± 63.4 0.027
FFT, Hz 34.7 ± 2.1 32.3 ± 2.9 0.001
  1. UDVA = uncorrected distance visual acuity; UNVA = uncorrected near visual acuity; CSS = contrast spatial sensitivity; VEP = visual evoked potentials; ERG = electroretinogram; FFT = flicker fusion threshold