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Table 4 Sensitivity analysis (mean differences) for the primary and secondary outcomes in randomized clinical trials assessing corneal collagen cross-linking (epi-on vs. epi-off)

From: Corneal collagen cross-linking epithelium-on vs. epithelium-off: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroup MD 95% CI P
Kmax flattening (D)
 Low risk of bias − 1.69 − 2.62 – − 0.76 0.004*
 With iontophoresis − 0.50 − 3.67 – 2.67 0.757
UDVA (logMAR)
 Low risk of bias − 0.05 − 0.20 – 0.10 0.491
 With iontophoresis − 0.01 − 0.23 – 0.21 0.930
CDVA (logMAR)
 Low risk of bias 0.06 − 0.004 – 0.118 0.069
 With iontophoresis 0.05 − 0.01 – 0.11 0.127
CCT (μm)
 Low risk of bias − 2.0 − 18.38 – 14.38 0.811
 With iontophoresis − 4.76 − 14.53 – 5.02 0.340
ECD (cells/mm2)
 Low risk of bias − 48.82 − 180.79 – 83.15 0.468
 With iontophoresis 3.0 − 22.86 – 28.86 0.820
  1. CCT central corneal thickness; CDVA corrected distance visual acuity; CI confidence interval; D diopter; ECD endothelial cell density; logMAR logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; MD mean differences; UDVA uncorrected distance visual acuity
  2. All the results were obtained through fixed-effects models because we only had two studies to summarize. If the value of the summary effect is negative, epi-on corneal collagen cross-linking would have more mean differences. Otherwise, epi-off would have this condition
  3. *indicates statistical significance