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Table 3 Synthesis of previously reported findings regarding choroidal thickness in patients with Graves’ disease

From: Choroidal vascularity index in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: a cross-sectional study

Authors Methods Nationality of the study population Results Correlation with ocular parameters Correlation with systemic parameters Study limitations
Cagiltay and Akay 2018 [9] Subfoveal CT; at 500 μm, 1000 μm, and 1500 μm temporal and nasal to the fovea Turkish Increased subfoveal, mean and temporal CT; no difference in nasal CT Correlation with VISA score
No correlation with exophthalmometry, axial length
No correlation with disease duration, mean blood pressure Superior or inferior CT not measured
Bruscolini et al.2018 [10] Subfoveal CT Italian Increased subfoveal CT Correlation with CAS and exophthalmometry No correlation with disease duration Small sample size (n = 18); lack of perifoveal measurements
Özkan et al.2016 [11] Subfoveal CT Turkish Increased subfoveal CT Correlation with CAS and elongated VEP P100 N/A Only SFCT was examined; small sample size
Lai et al. 2019 [12] Subfoveal CT; at 1 mm and 2 mm nasal, temporal, inferior and superior to the fovea; peripapillary region Chinese Increased CT in all point except at 2 mm inferior to the fovea and at peripapillary region Association with axial length, exophthalmometry and BCVA
No association with IOP and CAS
No association with age, gender, duration of TAO, history of smoking Most patients with CAS < 4
Yu and Zhang 2018 [13] Subfoveal CT; at 1500 μm and 3000 μm nasal and temporal to the fovea Chinese CT increased in all points No relationship with CAS, degree of exophthalmos No relationship with T3, T4, TSH, TRAb levels Lack of superior and inferior measurements
Çalışkan et al. 2017 [14] Subfoveal CT, at 1.5-mm and 3.0-mm nasal and temporal to the fovea Turkish Increased CT Correlation with CAS, IOP Correlation with age, disease activity Wide range of patient age (21–65 years)
  1. VISA = vision, inflammation, strabismus, and appearance; CT = choroidal thickness; CAS = clinical activity score; VEP = visual-evoked potential; N/A = not appliable; SFCT = subfoveal choroidal thickness; BCVA = best-corrected visual acuity; IOP = intraocular pressure; T3 = triiodothyronine; T4 = tetraiodothyronine; TRAb = thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone