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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of eligible participants in the study

From: The Jidong Eye Cohort Study: objectives, design, and baseline characteristics

Characteristics Total Male Female P value
n 3377 1568 1809  
Age (SD), years 45.0 (12.5) 45.1 (12.5) 44.9 (12.6) 0.61
Education level, n (%)     < 0.001
Illiteracy / Primary School 108 (3.2) 30 (1.9) 78 (4.3)  
Middle School 978 (29.2) 405 (26.0) 573 (31.9)  
College / University 2268 (67.6) 1122 (72.1) 1146 (63.8)  
Income, n (%)      < 0.001
 < ¥3,000 284 (8.5) 91 (5.8) 193 (10.8)  
¥3,000–5,000 2999 (89.4) 1433 (92.0) 1566 (87.2)  
 > ¥5,000 70 (2.1) 34 (2.2) 36 (2.0)  
Current Smoking, n (%) 631 (18.8) 615 (39.3) 16 (0.9)  < 0.001
Current Drinking, n (%) 456 (13.6) 447 (28.7) 9 (0.5)  < 0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 825 (25.0) 531 (34.3) 294 (16.8)  < 0.001
Diabetes, n (%) 258 (7.7) 163 (10.5) 95 (5.3)  < 0.001
Hyperglycemia, n (%) 474 (14.2) 292 (18.8) 182 (10.2)  < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.5 ± 3.5 25.6 ± 3.2 23.4 ± 3.3  < 0.001
Fasting Glucose (mmol/L) 5.6 ± 1.4 5.8 ± 1.6 5.4 ± 1.2  < 0.001
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.0 ± 1.0 5.0 ± 1.0 5.0 ± 1.0 0.781
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.8 ± 1.4 2.1 ± 1.6 1.5 ± 1.1  < 0.001
MMSE score 28.3 ± 2.8 28.3 ± 2.7 28.3 ± 2.8 0.96
MoCA score 26.9 ± 3.0 26.9 ± 3.0 26.9 ± 2.1 0.997
CVD history, n (%) 100 (3.0) 50 (3.2) 50 (2.8) 0.532
  1. BMI = body mass index, MMSE = mini mental status examination scale, MoCA = Montreal cognitive assessment, CVD = cardiovascular disease