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Table 1 Characteristics of study groups

From: Automated diagnosis and staging of Fuchs’ endothelial cell corneal dystrophy using deep learning

  Healthy Group
(51 eyes of 35 patients)
FECD Group p value
Early-stage
(30 eyes of 26 patients)
Late-stage
(23 eyes of 20 patients)
FECD clinical grade9
Grade: N (%) of eyes
1: 14 (26%),
2: 16 (33%)
3: 11 (17%),
4: 12 (22%)
Number of eyes Phakic eyes 31 (60%) 27 (51%) P = 0.449
Pseudophakic eyes (PC.IOL) 20 (40%) 26 (49%)
Sex Female 24 (47%) 33 (62%) P = 0.078*
Male 27 (53%) 20 (38%)
Age (range) years 65 (50-82) 69 (50-95) P = 0.118**
Mean healthy cornea prediction output Image level 0.99 ± 0.001 0.09 ± 0.012 0.00 ± 0.00 P < 0.001**
Eye level 0.995 ± 0.003 0.018 ± 0.008 0.00 ± 0.00 P < 0.001**
Mean early-stage FECD prediction output Image level 0.004 ± 0.001 0.755 ± 0.018 0.205 ± 0.04 P < 0.001**
Eye level 0.002 ± 0.001 0.855 ± 0.083 0.033 ± 0.028 P < 0.001**
Mean late-stage FECD prediction output Image level 0.001 ± 0.00 0.145 ± 0.015 0.795 ± 0.043 P < 0.001**
Eye level 0.0001 ± 0.00 0.155 ± 0.087 0.967 ± 0.028 P < 0.001**
  1. FECD Fuchs’ endothelial cell corneal dystrophy, PC.IOL posterior chamber intraocular lens
  2. 95% CI: 95 percent confidence interval on the difference between groups
  3. Values are presented as median (range) for age
  4. *P value was calculated using generalized estimating equations (GEE) with logistic link function and exchangeable correlation matrix
  5. **P value was calculated using GEE with identity link function and exchangeable correlation matrix