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Table 1 Visual, refractive, tomographic, aberrometric, and densitometric parameters at baseline and 12 months postoperatively in eyes treated with central corneal regularization combined with corneal cross-linking and in eyes treated with corneal cross-linking as a single procedure

From: Changes in higher order aberrations after central corneal regularization - a comparative two-year analysis of a semi-automated topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy combined with corneal cross-linking

 CXL-Plus group
(n = 28)
CXL group
(n = 28)
p-value (CXL-Plus vs. CXL 0)p1 (CXL-Plus 0 vs. 12)CXL-Plus group
(n = 28)
CXL group
(n = 28)
p1 (CXL
0 vs. 12)
p2 (CXL-Plus vs. CXL 12)
Baseline12 months follow-up
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Sex(% female)28.57%14.29%0.329     
Age(years)27.07 (9.14)25.82 (9.25)0.613     
UDVA(logMAR)0.70 (0.35)0.65 (0.39)0.6160.00020.36 (0.29)0.46 (0.37)0.0670.265
BSCVA(logMAR)0.23 (0.19)0.20 (0.18)0.5470.0060.10 (0.15)0.06 (0.11)0.00090.260
Refractive values
MRSE (D)−1.96 (2.76)−0.92 (1.80)0.1010.023−0.54 (1.63)−0.05 (1.87)0.0820.301
Manifest Sphere (D)−0.43 (2.34)0.37 (2.08)0.1820.1180.41 (1.53)1.65 (1.90)0.0200.010
Manifest Cylinder (D)−3.06 (2.24)−2.57 (2.49)0.4420.020−1.91 (1.17)−3.40 (2.11)0.1840.002
Corneal Thickness (μm)478.82 (20.42)470.36 (17.03)0.098     
Curvature Values
Cylinder (D)3.84 (1.79)3.64 (1.88)0.6850.2403.24 (1.98)4.03 (2.22)0.4810.166
K1 (D)43.88 (3.19)44.68 (1.62)0.2420.00641.64 (2.67)43.20 (2.29)0.0070.023
K2 (D)47.71 (3.79)48.32 (2.51)0.4810.00644.88 (3.63)47.23 (3.08)0.1520.012
Kmax (D)54.41 (5.22)54.36 (3.74)0.967< 0.000148.57 (4.49)53.70 (4.52)0.5540.0001
Aberrometric Values
Cornea Total
RMS total (μm)2.95 (1.03)2.62 (0.97)0.223< 0.00011.62 (0.82)2.72 (1.35)0.7520.0005
RMS LOA (μm)2.84 (0.99)2.52 (0.94)0.220< 0.00011.57 (0.80)2.61 (1.31)0.7690.0007
RMS HOA (μm)0.79 (0.30)0.71 (0.28)0.307< 0.00010.40 (0.19)0.73 (0.36)0.8170.0001
RMS Coma-like (μm)0.75 (0.29)0.68 (0.28)0.364< 0.00010.31 (0.21)0.65 (0.36)0.648< 0.0001
Anterior corneal surface
RMS total (μm)3.30 (1.17)2.97 (1.06)0.274< 0.00011.70 (0.93)2.98 (1.34)0.9750.0001
RMS LOA (μm)3.18 (1.12)2.85 (1.03)0.256< 0.00011.65 (0.92)2.88 (1.29)0.9240.0001
RMS HOA (μm)0.90 (0.34)0.81 (0.30)0.298< 0.00010.40 (0.21)0.79 (0.36)0.822< 0.0001
RMS Coma-like (μm)0.85 (0.33)0.76 (0.30)0.316< 0.00010.32 (0.22)0.72 (0.36)0.417< 0.0001
Posterior corneal surface
RMS total (μm)0.80 (0.31)0.75 (0.26)0.5160.6920.83 (0.25)0.81 (0.29)0.4190.783
RMS LOA (μm)0.76 (0.29)0.72 (0.26)0.5890.6750.79 (0.24)0.77 (0.28)0.4920.775
RMS HOA (μm)0.23 (0.09)0.22 (0.07)0.5270.6620.24 (0.08)0.23 (0.09)0.6440.662
RMS Coma-like (μm)0.21 (0.09)0.19 (0.07)0.4170.4890.23 (0.14)0.20 (0.08)0.3180.350
Densitometric Values
0.0–2.0 mm19.00 (1.46)18.47 (2.04)0.269< 0.000124.49 (5.43)25.70 (6.89)< 0.00010.469
2.0–6.0 mm16.83 (1.08)16.41 (2.39)0.4010.00118.53 (2.40)18.69 (2.65)0.0010.814
  1. BSCVA= best spectacle-corrected visual acuity; coma-like= primary and secondary coma aberration; CXL= corneal cross-linking; CXL-Plus= central corneal regularization combined with CXL; HOA= higher order aberrations; K1= flattest meridian, K2= steepest meridian, Kmax= steepest radius of anterior curvature; LOA= lower order aberrations; MRSE= mean refractive spherical equivalent; RMS= root mean square; UDVA= uncorrected distance visual acuity. The results are expressed as means (standard deviation). The level of statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. P-value = the difference between CXL-Plus and CXL values at baseline. p1 = the difference within a group between baseline values and postoperative values at 12 months. p2 = the difference between CXL-Plus values and CXL alone values 12 months postoperatively