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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Associated risk factors in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy

  Control NDR MDR P
n = 86 n = 90 n = 36  
Eye (OD/OS) 47/39 52/38 21/15 0.892
Age (years) 52.5 ± 9.11 52.7 ± 11.91 56.61 ± 12.25 0.135
Sex (male/female) 31/55 46/44 16/20 0.131
BMI (kg/m2) 23.37 ± 2.84 23.86 ± 2.95 23.9 ± 3.04 0.613
SBP (mmHg) 123.48 ± 13.77 128.4 ± 16.22 132.31 ± 18.23 0.031
DBP (mmHg) 76.88 ± 9.44 79.26 ± 10.44 78.36 ± 9.35 0.373
MAP (mmHg) 118.12 ± 13.34 122.06 ± 14.32 122.46 ± 14.01 0.201
SE (Diopter) 0.15 ± 1.32 −0.18 ± 1.59 0.19 ± 1.48 0.262
BCVA (LogMAR) 0.98 ± 0.14 0.89 ± 0.15 0.86 ± 0.14 < 0.001
AL (mm) 23.24 ± 0.86 23.37 ± 0.94 23.12 ± 0.73 0.320
IOP (mmHg) 13.96 ± 2.65 14.8 ± 2.58 14.88 ± 2.95 0.117
Smoke (Y/N) 75/15 25/11 0.082
Alcohol (Y/N) 74/16 28/8 0.566
Insulin (Y/N) 74/16 24/12 0.058
Duration (years) 5.47 ± 5.34 7.02 ± 5.65 0.150
BG (mmol/L) 7.85 ± 3.93 8.09 ± 2.38 0.738
HbA1c (%) 7.55 ± 1.78 8.17 ± 1.98 0.114
BUN (mmol/L) 6.24 ± 5.15 6.04 ± 4.27 0.856
Creatinine (μmol/L) 60.62 ± 16.88 73.17 ± 91.96 0.272
TG (mmol/L) 1.99 ± 1.73 1.59 ± 1 0.229
TC (mmol/L) 4.54 ± 1 4.58 ± 0.96 0.859
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.37 1.2 ± 0.28 0.194
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.48 ± 0.77 2.45 ± 0.98 0.866
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation for all subjects in each group. Control = control eyes; NDR = diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy; MDR = diabetic patients with mild diabetic retinopathy; BMI = body mass index; SBP = systolic blood pressure; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; MAP = mean arterial pressure; SE = spherical equivalent; BCVA = best corrected visual acuity; AL = axial length; IOP= intraocular pressure; BG = blood glucose; HbA1c= glycosylated hemoglobin; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; TG = triglyceride; TC = total cholesterol; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. P-values for differences among the three groups were determined by one-way ANOVA (Eye and Sex by Chi-Squared test) and difference between two groups by independent samples t-test. Bold P-value represents < 0.05