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Table 1 Studied Groups Descriptive Statistics (M ± SD)

From: Fundamentals of Presbyopia: visual processing and binocularity in its transformation

Characteristics Control Presbyopia P-value
Age, years 22.3 ± 3.2 52.4 ± 2.2 0.0001
Female: Male 15:15 15:15
Mean spherical equivalent of refraction, D 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.2 1.00
Axial length, mm 23.5 ± 0.5 23.5 ± 0.4 1.00
Keratometry, ax 90°, D 43.2 ± 1.3 43.3 ± 1.1 0.61
Keratometry, ax 180°, D 43.0 ± 1.1 43.1 ± 1.1 0.62
Amplitude of accommodation, D 6.93 ± 1.12 1.99 ± 0.89 0.0001
Mean prism equivalent of distance heterophoria, PD −1.2 ± 0.2 −1.1 ± 0.3 0.88
  1. D = diopter; PD = prism diopter