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Table 1 Current approaches for the management of corneal neovascularization; advantages, limitations, and complications

From: Therapeutic approaches for corneal neovascularization

Treatment Advantages Limitations Complications
Corticosteroids Reduction in inflammation and corneal neovascularization Limited effects on pre-existing mature corneal vessels Superinfection, glaucoma, and cataract formation
Laser Simple and tolerable procedure, obliteration of corneal efferent vessels Frequent reopening of the afferent vessels, ineffective in extensive corneal neovascularization Inadvertent damage to the corneal endothelium or crystalline lens, and suture lysis
Fine needle diathermy Inexpensive, obliteration of afferent and efferent vessels at different corneal depth Reopening of the afferent vessels necessitating retreatment Corneal micro perforation, intracorneal haemorrhages, transient opacification of the cornea, and striae
Anti-VEGF agents Effective on active young vessels Expensive, limited anti-angiogenic effects on stable mature and deep vessels, difficulties in manufacturing, short half-lives Persistent epithelial defects and stromal thinning with topical bevacizumab
  1. VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor