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Table 2 Data for main effects at each measurement point in the trial, by group. Lutein and total zeaxanthin serum data are also included

From: Macular carotenoid supplementation improves disability glare performance and dynamics of photostress recovery

Group Measure Baseline 6 months 12 months
Placebo (n = 10) MPOD 0.527 ± 0.213 0.558 ± 0.222 0.564 ± 0.237
Disability Glare 88.42 ± 58.77 90.63 ± 57.47 91.96 ± 59.12
Photostress recovery (mins) 8.78 ± 5.96 8.84 ± 6.12 8.71 ± 5.79
Serum L (μg/mL) 0.34 ± 0.07 0.35 ± 0.07 0.34 ± 0.08
Serum total Z (μg/mL) 0.13 ± 0.02 0.115 ± 0.03 0.125 ± 0.02
12 mg (n = 24) MPOD 0.488 ± 0.248 0.586 ± 0.266* 0.654 ± 0.282**
Disability Glare 86.02 ± 55.23 113.55 ± 60.11* 120.43 ± 64.52**
Photostress recovery (mins) 9.11 ± 6.14 7.65 ± 5.41* 6.92 ± 5.09**
Serum L (μg/mL) 0.40 ± 0.08 2.24 ± 0.22* 2.16 ± 0.20**
Serum total Z (μg/mL) 0.10 ± 0.014 0.29 ± 0.03* 0.27 ± 0.03**
24 mg (n = 25) MPOD 0.511 ± 0.202 0.634 ± 0.271* 0.685 ± 0.289**
Disability Glare 91.8 ± 61.66 123.01 ± 67.43* 128.52 ± 69.96**
Photostress recovery (mins) 9.33 ± 6.39 7.28 ± 5.86* 6.99 ± 5.56*
Serum L (μg/mL) 0.33 ± 0.05 3.25 ± 0.27* 3.29 ± 0.29**
Serum total Z (μg/mL) 0.13 ± 0.01 0.51 ± 0.06* 0.53 ± 0.06**
  1. Based on repeated-measures ANOVA, single asterisk = significant difference from baseline and placebo (p < 0.05); double asterisk = significant difference from baseline, 6-month measure, and placebo (p < 0.05)