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Table 6 Incidence-derived risk factors for the development of diabetic retinopathy in cohort studies

From: Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema and related vision loss

Risk factor Author (Year) Strength of association
Age Xu (2014) [75] OR (95 % CI) = 1.00 (0.98–1.02) per year increase
Ahmed (2012) [210] HR (95 % CI) = 1.29 (1.07–1.58) per year
Janghorbani (2003) [212] HR (95 % CI) = 1.03 (1.006–1.04) per year increase
Jones (2012) [52] Compared to 40–70 years, HR (95 % CI) = 1.49 (1.09–2.05) for < 40 years; 1.26 (1.00–1.27) for > 70 years
Gender Xu (2014) [75] OR (95 % CI) = 1.32 (0.88–1.96) *reference gender not reported
Kajiwara (2014) [76] HR (95 % CI) = 1.85 (1.06–3.24) for female
Ahmed (2012) [210] HR (95 % CI) = 1.08 (0.91–1.29) *reference gender not specified
Smoking Stratton (2001) [51] OR (95 % CI) = 0.63 (0.48–0.82) if current smoker
Duration of diabetes Xu (2014) [75] OR (95 % CI) = 1.16 (1.10–1.22) per year increase
Kajiwara (2014) [76] OR (95 % CI) = 1.13 (1.09–1.17) per year increase
Romero-Aroca (2011) [77] OR (95 % CI) = 8.90 (4.83–17.4) for ≤ 15 years vs. > 15 years
Jones (2012) [52] Compared to < 10 years, HR (95 % CI) = 1.21 (1.01–1.44) for 10–20 years; 0.93 (0.68–1.26) if ≥ 20 years
Thomas (2012) [49] Compared to < 5 years, HR (95 % CI) = 1.29 (1.23–1.34) for 5–9 years; 1.68 (1.59–1.77) for 10 years
Salinero-Fort (2013) [59] Compared to < 6 years, HR (95 % CI) = 1.22 (0.88–1.70) for 7–14 years; 1.64 (1.05–2.57) for 15–22 years; 2.00 (1.18–3.39) for 22 years
HbA1C Xu (2014) [75] OR (95 % CI) = 1.73 (1.35–2.21) per 1 % increase
Jin (2014) [98] OR (95 % CI) = 1.12 (1.01–1.24) per 1 % increase
Tam (2009) [60] OR (95 % CI) = 1.57 (1.23–2.00) per 1 % increase
Kajiwara (2014) [76] OR (95 % CI) = 1.21 (1.08–1.36) per 1 % increase
Stratton (2001) [51] Compared to HbA1C < 6.2 %, OR (95 % CI) = 1.4 (1.1–1.8) for 6.2–7.4 %; 2.5 (2.0–3.2) for > 7.4 %
Romero-Aroca (2011) [77] OR (95 % CI) = 4.01 (1.91–8.39) if > 7.0 % vs. ≤ 7.0 %
Tudor (1998) [53] OR (95 % CI) = 1.50 (0.96–2.36) per 2 % increase
Kajiwara (2014) [76] HR (95 % CI) = 1.33 (1.18–1.51) per 1 % increase
Janghorbani (2003) [212] HR (95 % CI) = 1.08 (1.007–1.15) per 1 % increase
Salinero-Fort (2013) [59] Compared to HbA1C < 7 % HR (95 % CI) = 1.39 (1.01–1.92) for 7–8 %; 1.90 (1.30–2.77) for > 8 %
Henricsson (2003) [111] HR (95 % CI) = 1.7 (1.43–1.93) per 1 % increase
Use of insulin/diabetes treatment Tudor (1998) [53] OR (95 % CI) = 2.00 (0.75–5.35) if on oral treatment vs. no medications
  OR (95 % CI) = 9.30 (2.69–32.16) if on insulin vs. no medications
Jones (2012) [52] Compared to diet control only, HR (95 % CI) = 1.77 (1.44–2.17) if oral hypoglycemics only
  HR (95 % CI) = 2.17 (1.68–2.81) if using insulin
Thomas (2012) [49] Compared to diet control only, HR (95 % CI) = 1.41 (1.36–1.47) if oral hypoglycemics only
  HR (95 % CI) = 2.03 (1.89–2.18) if using insulin
Blood pressure Jin (2014) [98] OR (95 % CI) = 1.80 (1.14–2.86) if SBP > 140 mmHg and/or DBP > 90 mmHg
Kajiwara (2014) [76] OR (95 % CI) = 1.02 (1.01–1.03) per mmHg increase in SBP
Stratton (2001) [51] Compared to < 125 mmHg, OR (95 % CI) = 1.5 (1.2–2.6) for SBP was 125–139 mmHg; 2.8 (2.2–3.5) if SBP was ≥ 140 mmHg
Romero-Aroca (2011) [77] OR (95 % CI) = 3.31 (1.62–6.75) if SBP > 140 mmHg and/or DBP > 90 mmHg
Tudor (1998) [53] OR (95 % CI) = 1.81 (1.02–3.20) per 20 mmHg increase in SBP
Kajiwara (2014) [76] HR (95 % CI) = 1.01 (0.99–1.03) per mmHg increase in SBP
Jones (2012) [52] HR (95 % CI) = 0.72 (0.64–0.81) if on anti-hypertensive medications
Obesity Kajiwara (2014) [76] OR (95 % CI) = 1.07 (1.01–1.13) per kg/m2 increase in BMI
Kajiwara (2014) [76] HR (95 % CI) = 1.16 (1.06–1.26) per kg/m2 increase in BMI
Henricsson (2003) [111] HR (95 % CI) = 1.11 (1.04–1.18) per kg/m2 increase in BMI
Nephropathy Xu (2014) [75] OR (95 % CI) = 1.01 (1.002–1.022) per mmol/L increase in serum creatinine concentration
Axial Length Xu (2014) [75] OR (95 % CI) = 0.48 (0.33–0.71) per mm increase
Cerebrospinal fluid pressure Xu (2014) [75] OR (95 % CI) = 1.10 (1.01–1.21) per mmHg increase
Fasting blood glucose Janghorbani (2003) [212] HR (95 % CI) = 1.003 (1.0003–1.005) per mg/dL increase in fasting blood glucose
Cholesterol Salinero-Fort (2013) [59] Compared to < 100 mg/dL, HR (95 % CI) = 0.87 (0.65–1.16) for LDL 100–190 mg/dL; 7.91 (3.39–18.47) for LDL > 190 mg/dL
Aspirin use Salinero-Fort (2013) [59] HR (95 % CI) = 1.65 (1.22–2.24) if patient takes aspirin
Risk factors for DME Incidence   
Risk factor Author (Year) Strength of association
Duration of diabetes Romero-Aroca (2011) [77] OR (95 % CI) = 8.921 (4.321–26.773) if > 15 years of diabetes duration
HbA1c Romero-Aroca (2011) [77] OR (95 % CI) = 3.121 (1.823–10.332) if HbA1c is > 7.0 %
Blood pressure Klein (2009) [73] HR (95 % CI) = 1.17 (1.10–1.25) per 1 % increase
Romero-Aroca (2011) [77] OR (95 % CI) = 3.115 (0.907–10.70) if SBP > 140 mmHg and/or DBP > 90 mmHg
Klein (2009) [73] HR (95 % CI) = 1.15 (1.04–1.26) for every 10 mmHg increase in SBP
Nephropathy Romero-Aroca (2011) [77] OR (95 % CI) = 6.774 (3.442–18.236) if protein excretion > 200 μg/min or > 300 μg/mg of albumin: creatinine ratio
Klein (2009) [73] HR (95 % CI) = 1.43 (0.99–2.08) if urine protein concentration ≥ 30 mg/dL
Cholesterol Romero-Aroca (2011) [77] OR (95 % CI) = 4.125 (1.125–15.857) if Total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio is > 3.5 in men and > 3.0 in women
  1. OR odds ratio, HR hazard ratios, CI confidence interval, LDL low density lipoprotein, HDL high density lipoprotein, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure