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Table 3 Progression and regression of diabetic retinopathy

From: Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema and related vision loss

Author (Year) Method of severity grading Progression intervals Criteria for progression or regression Progression of DR (%) Progression from NPDR to PDR (%) Regression of DR (%)
Asia
 Tam (2009) [60] Concatenated ETDRS severity of both eyes, with 11 levels Cumulative at 4 years 2-step 34.7 9.9 13.2
 Song (2011) [61] Eye with worse ETDRS severity Cumulative at 4 years 1-step 6.6 Not investigated 45.8
 Kawasaki (2011) [62] Mild DR to at least severe NPDR according to ETDRS Cumulative at 8 years N/A N/A 15.9 Not investigated
Europe
 Jones (2012) [52] Eye with worse ETDRS severity Cumulative at 5 years Not stated Data irretrievable 6.1 Not investigated
Cumulative at 10 years 9.6
 Broe (2014) [45] Eye with worse ETDRS severity Cumulative at 16 years 2-step 64.1 31.0 0
 North America
 Tudor (1998) [53] Eye with worse ETDRS severity Cumulative at 4 years 2-step 24.1 Not investigated 13.3
 Varma (2010) [54] Concatenated ETDRS severity of both eyes, with 15 levels Cumulative at 4 years 2-step 38.9 5.3 14.0
 Klein (2008) [44] Concatenated ETDRS severity of both eyes, with 15 levels Between 0 to 4 years 2-step 13.5 annually 2.5 annually 3.0 annually
Between 4 to 10 years 13.0 annually 4.0 annually 0.8 annually
Between 10 to 14 years 12.0 annually 2.5 annually 0.4 annually
Between 14 to 25 years 2.4 annually 1.5 annually 0.4 annually
Cumulative at 25 years   83.1 42.0 17.8
Oceania
 Cikamatana (2007) [56] Concatenated ETDRS severity of both eyes, with 15 levels Cumulative at 5 years 1-step 25.9 4.1 Not reported
Others
 Leske (2006) [57] Mild or moderate DR to at least severe NPDR according to ETDRS Cumulative at 9 years N/A N/A 8.2 Not investigated
 Tapp (2006) [58] Mild or moderate DR to at least severe NPDR according to ETDRS Cumulative at 6 years N/A 27.7 5.2 Not investigated
  1. DR diabetic retinopathy, NPDR nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, PDR proliferative diabetic retinopathy, ETDRS Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study, N/A not available