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Table 2 Incidence of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic subjects

From: Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema and related vision loss

Author (Year) Type of study Location Sample size, Age in years Diabetes type Follow-up time in years Cumulative incidence of DR, % (95 % CI) Incidence of VTDR (%)
Asia
 Xu (2014) [75] Population China 2602 Unspecified 10 4.2 (3.45–5.03)** Not investigated
Mean 64.6 ± 9.7
 Jin (2014) [98] Population China 322 Type 2 5 46.9 13.9 (Severe NPDR)
Mean 66.1 ± 13.2 4.6 (PDR)
 Tam (2009) [60] Hospital Hong Kong 212 Type 2 4 20.3 0.47 (PDR)
Mean 55.2 ± 9.5
 Song (2011) [61] Hospital Hong Kong 3647 Type 2 4 15.2 0.03
Mean 62.60 ± 9.58
 Kawasaki (2011) [62] Hospital Japan 1221 Type 2 8 26.6 Not investigated
Mean 58.2 ± 6.9
 Kajiwara (2014) [76] Hospital Japan 383 Type 2 5.8 ± 2.5 (retrospective) 58.5/1000 person years Not investigated
Mean 59.4 ± 11.0
 Tsugawa (2012) [209] Hospital Japan 1083 Unspecified 3 15.7 Not investigated
Mean 51.0 ± 11.7
 Ahmed (2012) [210] Hospital Bangladesh 977 Type 2 15 50.6 (47.5–53.8) Not investigated
Mean 41 ± 8
 Middle East
 Manaviat (2008) [211] Hospital Iran 120 Type 2 4 47.5 (38.6–56.4) Not investigated
Mean 55.2 ± 9.6
 Janghorbani (2003) [212] Hospital Iran 549 Type 2 5.1 ± 2.1 (retrospective) 45.4 Not investigated
Mean
45.7 ± 9.3
Europe
 Stratton (2001) [51] Population United Kingdom 1216 Type 2 6 41 Not investigated
Mean 52.2 ± 8.5
 Younis (2003) [46] Population United Kingdom 305 Type 1 6 45.3 (36.9–53.7) 5.4 (2.3–8.5)
Median 30.2
IQR 21.5–39.8
 Younis (2003) [50] Population United Kingdom 3743 Type 2 6 38.1 (35.1–41.2) 6.1 (4.4–7.8)
Median 63.4
IQR 56.1–69.8
 Jones (2012) [52] Population United Kingdom 16,444 Type 2 10 66 18.7
Median 66.7
IQR 58.0–74.5
 Martin-Merino (2012) [47] Population United Kingdom 1757 Type 1 9 23.9 4.4 (DME)
Mean 19.1
63,226 Type 2 27.8 3.6 (DME)
Mean 61.3
 Thomas (2012) [49] Population United Kingdom 49,763 Type 2 4 26.0 0.7
Mean 60.2 ± 11.3
 Perol (2012) [213] Hospital France 236 Unspecified 3 14.0 (9.5–18.4) 0
Mean 54.0 ± 12.8
 Romero-Aroca (2011) [77] Hospital Spain 334 Type 1 10 35.9 11.07 (DME)
Mean 25.7 ± 11.7
 Salinero-Fort (2013) [59] Population Spain 2405 Type 2 4 8.07 (7.04–9.22) 2.8 (PDR) 1.2 (DME)
Mean 67.5 ± 10.6
 Henricsson (2003) [111] Population Sweden 627 Types 1 and 2 10 39 1.8 (PDR)
Mean 35.3 ± 5.8
 Broe (2014) [45] Population Denmark 185 Type 1 16 95.1 Not investigated
Mean 7.5 ± 3.7
North America
 Lee (1992) [55] Population (Oklahoma Indians) United States of America 380 Type 2 14 72.3 15.4 (PDR)
Mean 48.2 ± 8.4 12.5 improved
 Klein (1998) [43] Population United States of America 634 Type 1 14 95.9 (93.2–98.6) 26.1 (22.6–29.6) (DME)
Mean 14.2 ± 7.4
 Tudor (1998) [53] Population United States of America 169 Type 2 4 22.5 Not investigated
Mean 58.1
 Varma (2010) [54] Population (Latino) United States of America 775 Unspecified 4 34.0 (30.0–38.0) 5.4 (3.8–7.1) (DME)
Mean 58 ± 9.7
Oceania
 Cikamatana (2007) [56] Population Australia 150 Unspecified 5 22.2 (14.1–32.2) Not investigated
Mean 66.2 ± 8.4
Others        
 Leske (2006) [57] Population Barbados 436 Types 1 and 2 9 39.6 (33.6–45.5) 8.3
Mean 57.6 ± 9.4
 Tapp (2006) [58] Population Mauritius 227 Unspecified 6 23.8 0.4 (PDR)
Mean 50 ± 11
  1. DR diabetic retinopathy, VTDR vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy, CI confidence interval, NPDR nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, PDR proliferative diabetic retinopathy, DME diabetic macular edema
  2. **Cumulative incidence of DR among total sample, incidence among participants with diabetes not reported