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Table 1 Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic subjects

From: Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema and related vision loss

Author (Year) Type of study Location Sample size, Age in years Diabetes type Prevalence of DR (%) Prevalence of VTDR (%)
 Yau (2012) [3] Meta-analysis Global 12,620 Overall 35.36 11.72 (PDR and/or DME)
Mean 58.1 Type 1 77.31 38.48 (PDR and/or DME)
Range 3–97 Type 2 25.16 6.92 (PDR and/or DME)
Asia
 Liu (2012) [22] Meta-analysis China 11,996 Unspecified 23.0 2.8 (PDR)
Range 15–87
 Kung (2014) [19] Hospital Hong Kong 15,856 Type 2 12.1 0.3 (PDR)
Range ≥ 20
 Jee (2013) [202] Population South Korea 1678 Type 2 15.8 4.6
Mean 58.0 ± 11.6
 Wong (2008) [39] Population Singapore 757 Type 2 35.0 9.0
Mean 58.7 ± 11.0
Range 40–80
 Chiang (2011) [203] Population Singapore 401 Type 2 25.4 Not investigated
Mean 53.0 ± 9.0
Range 40–95
 Zheng (2012) [204] Population Singapore 1295 Type 2 30.4 7.1
Range ≥ 40
 Raman (2009) [21] Population India 1,414 Unspecified 18.0 4.3
Mean 56.1 ± 10.1
Range ≥ 40
 Katulanda (2014) [205] Hospital Sri Lanka 536 Unspecified 27.4 Not investigated
Mean 56.4 ± 10.9
Range ≥ 18
 Akhter (2013) [31] Population Bangladesh 60 Unspecified 21.6 Not investigated
Mean 46.0 ± 12
 Thapa (2014) [32] Hospital Nepal 277 Unspecified 38.26 14.44
Mean 62.3 ± 13.3
Range ≥ 20
Middle East
 Al-Rubeaan (2015) [64] Population (Registry) Saudi Arabia 50,464 Type 2 19.7 10.6 (PDR) 5.7 (DME)
Mean 59.7 ± 12.8
Range ≥ 25
 Al Ghamdi (2012) [26] Population Saudi Arabia 612 Unspecified 36.8 17.5 (Scottish DR Grading R4 and/or M2)
Mean 63.3
Range ≥ 50
 Papakonstantinou (2015) [27] Population Iran 529 Type 2 29.6 11.1
Range 40–80
Europe
 Thomas (2015) [10] Population United Kingdom 91,393 Overall 32.4 3.4 (PDR and/or DME)
Mean 36.5 ± 16.4 Type 1 56.0 11.2 (PDR and/or DME)
Mean 65.3 ± 11.7 Type 2 30.3 2.9 (PDR and/or DME)
 Pugliese (2012) [65] Hospital Italy 15,773 Type 2 22.2 9.8
Range 59–75
 Pedro (2010) [11] Population Spain 8675 Overall 26.7 0.59 (PDR)
Mean 34.9 ± 10.5 Type 1 36.5 1.0 (PDR) 5.73 (DME)
Mean 64.6 ± 10.8 Type 2 26.1 0.56 (PDR) 6.44 (DME)
 Dutra Medeiros (2015) [66] Population Portugal 52,739 Type 2 16.3 3.1
Mean 69.1 ± 11.1
Range ≥ 45
 Hautala (2014) [12] Population Finland 172 Type 1 93.6 34.9 (PDR)
Mean 30 ± 3
Range 22–35
 Bertelsen (2013) [13] Population Norway 514 Overall 26.8 1.2 (PDR) 3.9 (DME)
Mean 66.4 Type 1 78.0
Range 46–87 Type 2 25.0
 Knudsen (2006) [14] Population Denmark 984 Overall 48.8  
Median 37.3 Type 1 53.8 2.9 (PPDR) 5.6 (PDR) 7.9 (CSME)
IQR 19.0–48.5
Median 58.1 Type 2 38.7 3.6 (PPDR) 0.9 (PDR) 12.8 (CSME)
IQR 15.0–65.0
 Dedov (2009) [15] Population Russia 7186 Overall 45.9 8.1 (PPDR) 6.7 (PDR)
Median 38.0 Type 1 54.6 9.1 (PPDR) 11.1 (PDR)
IQR 27.0–49.0
Median 59.0 Type 2 34.2 7.2 (PPDR) 2.7 (PDR)
IQR 54.0–66.0    
North America
 Zhang (2010) [18] Population United States of America 1006 Unspecified 28.5 4.4
Range ≥ 40
 Kempen (2004) [17] Pooled population from 8 studies United States of America 4440 Type 2 40.3 8.2
Range ≥ 40
 Roy (2004) [16] Pooled population from 2 studies United States of America 1384 Type 1 79.1 31.2
Range ≥ 18
 Nathoo (2010) [67] Population Canada 394 Unspecified 27.2 2.3 (PDR) 2.0 (CSME)
Mean 58.8
Range 10–100
South America
 Schellini (2014) [206] Population Brazil 407 Type 2 7.62 Not investigated
Mean 51.8 ± 13.6
Range ≥ 30
 Esteves (2009) [68] Hospital Brazil 437 Type 1 44.4 3.0 (PPDR) 22.2 (PDR) 9.4 (CSME)
Mean 26.8 ± 7.8
Range ≥ 18
 Villena (2011) [69] Hospital Peru 1222 Type 2 23.1 1.6 (PPDR) 2.8 (PDR) 2.3 (CSME)
Median 59.0
IQR 52.0–67.0
Africa
 Thomas (2013) [70] Hospital South Africa 5565 Overall 25.8 7.5
Mean 35.4 ± 15.4 Type 1 36.9 9.7
Mean 56.8 ± 11.8 Type 2 21.4 6.6
 Kahloun (2014) [33] Hospital Tunisia 2320 Type 1 and 2 26.3 5.4 (PPDR) 3.4 (PDR) 4.2 (CSME)
Mean 54.5
Range 10–92
 Mathenge (2014) [34] Population Kenya 195 Unspecified 35.9 13.9 (PPDR + PDR) 4.1 (CSME)
Range ≥ 50
 Sharew (2013) [35] Hospital Ethiopia 324 Unspecified 41.4 7.3
Oceania
 Kaidonis (2014) [71] Pooled population from 11 studies Australia 12,666 Type 1 and 2 30.4 7.5 (PDR and/or DME)
Range ≥ 15
 Papali’i-Curtin (2013) [207] Population New Zealand 5647 Unspecified 19.0 0.4 (PDR)
 Win Tin (2014) [208] Population Pacific Islands (Vanuatu, Nauru, Solomon Islands) 459 Type 2 47.1 Not investigated
Mean 54
  1. DR diabetic retinopathy, VTDR vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy, PDR proliferative diabetic retinopathy, DME diabetic macular edema, PPDR preproliferative diabetic retinopathy, CSME clinically significant macular edema, IQR interquartile range